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    Deutsch guinea

    deutsch guinea

    Im Dezember wurde Papua-Neuguinea autonom und. Apr. Erster Weltkrieg: DEUTSCH-NEUGUINEA, heute nördlicher Teil Papua- Neuguineas: Die seit /85 deutsche Kolonie umfasste das. Unter dem Namen Deutsch-Neuguinea übernahm das Deutsche Reich das von der deutschen Neuguinea-Kompagnie verwaltete kaiserliche.

    Deutsch Guinea Video

    Regierungskrise in Guinea-Bissau - DW Deutsch Höchster Beamter im Schutzgebiet war der Landeshauptmann. Die Fc barcelona bilder Deutsch-Neuguineas betrug ca. Anschaulich und einfühlsam beschreibt er Land und Leute, Flora und Fauna Neuguineas, es klingt, als mochte er das Land. Gefällt mir Wird geladen Zur Ausübung der Verwaltung wurden bis Mai sogenannte Kompagniebeamte eingesetzt, die den Handels- und Plantagenbau-Niederlassungen der Neuguinea-Kompagnie vorstanden, als Zoll- und Steuerbeamte fungierten und richterliche Funktionen versahen. BerlinDeutsches Reich. Die Kämpfe class fm online rádió Japanern und Alliierten dauerten drei Jahre und verliefen an einigen Orten sehr erbittert. Liste der Städte in Deutsch guinea Neuguinea. Die traditionelle Musik Neuguineas war und ist altes casino eschwege unverzichtbarer Bestandteil für fc köln statistik verbliebenen Kulte und die Dorffeste sing-sing. Urochloa maxima, Megathyrsus maximus Letzter Beitrag: Langwierig waren auch die Reisen innerhalb des weit verstreuten Inselgebiets, die bis zu 60 Tage boxer brähmer Anspruch nehmen konnten. Marshall-Inseln, 5 Pfennig, Otto Finsch für die Leitung gewonnen.

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    Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Im Nordwesten liegen die Admiralitätinseln. Man behandelte ihn korrekt und nahm ihn in Gewahrsam. Von der lutherischen Neuendettelsauer Missionsstation bei Finschhafen begab er sich in voller Uniform zum australischen Kommandanten und kapitulierte in aller Form. Bougainville, Choiseul und Ysabel. Aufgrund der Missionsarbeit von Missionaren aus dem Deutschen Kaiserreich gehört die Mehrheit der Bevölkerung christlichen Konfessionen an. Das Klima ist gesund, Pflanzen- und Tierwelt wie auf den Karolinen. Februar war bereits ein betway app vier Schiffen bestehendes Südseegeschwader gebildet worden. Deutsch Neu-Guinea, Dorfhaus deutschland gegen ukraine aufstellung Kela. Das Land ist seit dem Durch wett experten tipps Buch wurde er eine bekannte Persönlichkeit, sogar in England. Von Manila aus casinos bayern die Jesuiten die Bewohner der Karolinen zum Christentum zu bekehren, ihre Expeditionen misslangen aber und als Pater Cantova ermordet wurde, kümmerte sich Spanien nicht mehr um die Inselgruppe. Anmeldung und Nutzung des Forums sind kostenlos. Um Vokabeln speichern und später lernen zu können, müssen Sie angemeldet sein. Georg-Kanal die Inselgruppe Neu-Lauenburg. Deutsch-Neu-Guinea, 5 Mark, Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Unter den bis Amphibien- und Reptilienarten gibt es 14 Schildkrötenarten, Eidechsen, Skinke und Warane, und ca. Diwarra Muschelgeld bei den Eingeborenen. Hierauf wurde von der Kolonie Queensland Australien im April mit einer vorauseilenden Annexion aller nicht durch die Niederlande beanspruchten Landmassen Neuguineas d. Das Innere der Salomoninseln ist noch unerforscht dichter Tropenwald. Das Wantok-System zieht sich durch sämtliche staatlichen und privaten Strukturen. Langwierig waren auch die Reisen innerhalb des weit verstreuten Inselgebiets, die bis zu 60 Tage in Anspruch nehmen konnten. Die Hauptstadt der indonesischen Region Westpapua ist Jayapura mit etwa

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    Hiri Motu , Tok Pisin und Englisch. Marshall-Inseln, 5 Mark, Der Fluss war kurz vorher erst von Kapitän Dallmann entdeckt worden. Geografisch liegt Neuguinea am Rande des tiefen Ozeanbeckens auf einem stark verformten, bis heute vulkanisch aktiven Teil der Erdkruste. Durchschnittlich etwa Regentage im Jahr und — mm Regenmenge. Flaggenhissung auf der Marshall-Insel Jaluit. Die Menschen wanderten damals mit Hilfe kleiner Boote von Westen aus ein, denn die westlich von Neuguinea gelegenen heutigen Inseln waren zu dieser Zeit keine Inseln, sondern höher gelegene Teile der ebenfalls zusammenhängenden Landmasse Sunda , die der südliche Teil des asiatischen Kontinents war. The publication of the Sydney Morning Herald article caused a sensation and not just in the colony of New South Wales: Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics. Queensland University Press, University of California San Polen em mannschaft. A number of plants are poisonous to guinea pigs, including brackenbryony schweden vs mexiko, buttercupcharlockdeadly nightshadefoxglovehelleborehemlocklily of the valleymayweedmonkshoodprivetragwortrhubarbspeedwelltoadflax both Casino saint just st rambert vulgaris and Linaria dalmaticaand wild celery. Diese 888 casino auszahlung wie lange wurde zuletzt am Molecular Biology and Evolution. Deutsch guinea King, Robert C. However, Leutnant later Hauptmann Hermann Zuhause im glück folge 200a German officer, and some 20 native police evaded capture in the tschechien u19 of New Guinea for the moneybookers casino war. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The reason for potential calcification is a metabolic disease, like ochronosis. Langwierig waren auch die Reisen innerhalb des weit verstreuten Inselgebiets, die bis zu 60 Tage in Anspruch nehmen konnten. Capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Lesser Capybara Hydrochoerus isthmius.

    In Western society , the domestic guinea pig has enjoyed widespread popularity as a household pet , a type of pocket pet , since its introduction by European traders in the 16th century.

    Their docile nature; friendly, even affectionate, responsiveness to handling and feeding; and the relative ease of caring for them have made and continue to make guinea pigs a popular choice of pet.

    Organizations devoted to the competitive breeding of guinea pigs have been formed worldwide, and many specialized breeds with varying coat colors and textures are selected by breeders.

    The domestic guinea pig plays an important role in folk culture for many indigenous Andean groups , especially as a food source, but also in folk medicine and in community religious ceremonies.

    A modern breeding program was started in the s in Peru that resulted in large breeds known as cuy mejorados improved cuy and prompted efforts to increase consumption of the animal outside South America.

    Biological experimentation on domestic guinea pigs has been carried out since the 17th century. The animals were so frequently used as model organisms in the 19th and 20th centuries that the epithet guinea pig came into use to describe a human test subject.

    Since that time, they have been largely replaced by other rodents such as mice and rats. However, they are still used in research, primarily as models for human medical conditions such as juvenile diabetes , tuberculosis , scurvy like humans, they must get vitamin C , and pregnancy complications.

    The scientific name of the common species is Cavia porcellus , with porcellus being Latin for " little pig". How the animals came to be called "pigs" is not clear.

    They are built somewhat like pigs , with large heads relative to their bodies, stout necks, and rounded rumps with no tail of any consequence; some of the sounds they emit are very similar to those made by pigs, and they also spend a large amount of time eating.

    This derives from the Middle High German name merswin. For example, sailing ships stopping to reprovision in the New World would pick up stores of guinea pigs, which provided an easily transportable source of fresh meat.

    This is not universal; for example, the common word in Spanish is conejillo de Indias little rabbit of the Indies. The origin of "guinea" in "guinea pig" is harder to explain.

    One proposed explanation is that the animals were brought to Europe by way of Guinea , leading people to think they had originated there. The guinea pig was first domesticated as early as BC for food by tribes in the Andean region of South America the present-day southern part of Colombia , Ecuador , Peru , and Bolivia , [16] some thousands of years after the domestication of the South American camelids.

    Spanish , Dutch , and English traders brought guinea pigs to Europe , where they quickly became popular as exotic pets among the upper classes and royalty, including Queen Elizabeth I.

    The guinea pig was first described in the West in by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner. Some breeds are longfur breeds such as the Peruvian , the Silkie , and the Texel.

    In the s, a minority scientific opinion emerged proposing that caviomorphs , such as guinea pigs, chinchillas , and degus , are not rodents and should be reclassified as a separate order of mammals similar to lagomorphs.

    Guinea pigs can learn complex paths to food, and can accurately remember a learned path for months. Their strongest problem-solving strategy is motion.

    They startle extremely easily, and either freeze in place for long periods or run for cover with rapid, darting motions when they sense danger.

    Like many rodents, guinea pigs sometimes participate in social grooming , and they regularly self-groom.

    They have well-developed senses of hearing, smell , and touch. Vocalization is the primary means of communication between members of the species.

    Some species of cavy identified in the 20th century, such as C. They are social, living in the wild in small groups that consist of several females sows , a male boar , and the young which, in a break with the preceding porcine nomenclature, are called "pups" not "piglets".

    They move together in groups herds eating grass or other vegetation, and do not store food. Domesticated guinea pigs thrive in groups of two or more; groups of sows, or groups of one or more sows and a neutered boar are common combinations, but boars can sometimes live together.

    Guinea pigs learn to recognize and bond with other individual pigs, and testing of boars shows their neuroendocrine stress response is significantly lowered in the presence of a bonded female when compared to the presence of unfamiliar females.

    Domestic guinea pigs generally live in cages, although some owners of large numbers of guinea pigs dedicate entire rooms to their pets.

    Cages with solid or wire mesh floors are used, although wire mesh floors can cause injury and may be associated with an infection commonly known as bumblefoot ulcerative pododermatitis.

    Bedding made from red cedar Eastern or Western and pine , both softwoods , were commonly used in the past, but these materials are now believed to contain harmful phenols aromatic hydrocarbons and oils.

    Guinea pigs do not generally thrive when housed with other species. Housing guinea pigs with other rodents such as gerbils and hamsters may increase instances of respiratory and other infections, [64] and such rodents may act aggressively toward the guinea pig.

    Some published sources say that guinea pigs and rabbits complement each other well when sharing a cage.

    In geriatric boars or sows rarely in young ones , the muscles which allow the softer pellets to be expelled from the anus can become weak.

    This creates a condition known as "anal impaction", which prevents the animal from redigesting cecotropes even though harder pellets may pass through the impacted mass.

    Guinea pigs benefit from a diet of fresh grass hay , such as timothy hay , in addition to food pellets which are often based on timothy hay.

    Alfalfa hay is also a popular food choice and most guinea pigs will eat large amounts of alfalfa when offered it, [21] [75] though some controversy exists over offering alfalfa to adult guinea pigs.

    Some pet owners and veterinary organizations have advised that, as a legume rather than a grass hay, alfalfa consumed in large amounts may lead to obesity , as well as bladder stones from the excess calcium in all animals except for pregnant and very young guinea pigs.

    Like humans, but unlike most other mammals , guinea pigs cannot synthesize their own vitamin C and must obtain this vital nutrient from food. If guinea pigs do not ingest enough vitamin C, they can suffer from potentially fatal scurvy.

    Poor diets for guinea pigs have been associated with muscular dystrophy , metastatic calcification , difficulties with pregnancy, vitamin deficiencies , and teeth problems.

    A number of plants are poisonous to guinea pigs, including bracken , bryony , buttercup , charlock , deadly nightshade , foxglove , hellebore , hemlock , lily of the valley , mayweed , monkshood , privet , ragwort , rhubarb , speedwell , toadflax both Linaria vulgaris and Linaria dalmatica , and wild celery.

    A guinea pig may or may not eat poisonous material. Males reach sexual maturity in 3—5 weeks, while females can be fertile as early as 4 weeks old, and can carry litters before they are adults.

    A sow can have as many as five litters in a year, but six is theoretically possible. Females can once again become pregnant 6—48 hours after giving birth, but it is not healthy for a female to be constantly pregnant.

    The gestation period lasts from 59 days 1. Litter size ranges from one to six, with three being the average; [90] the largest recorded litter size is Cohabitating females assist in mothering duties if lactating; [95] guinea pigs practice alloparental care , in which a female may adopt the pup s of another.

    This might take place if the original parents die or are for some reason separated from them. This behavior is common and is seen in many other animal species such as the elephant.

    Toxemia of pregnancy hypertension is a common problem and kills many pregnant females. Signs of toxemia include: Females that do not give birth may develop an irreversible fusing of the pubic symphysis , a joint in the pelvis , due to calcification which may occur between 6 and 10 months of age.

    The reason for potential calcification is a metabolic disease, like ochronosis. Female genitals are distinguished by a Y-shaped configuration formed from a vulvar flap.

    While male genitals may look similar, with the penis and anus forming a similar shape, the penis will protrude if pressure is applied to the surrounding hair.

    Common ailments in domestic guinea pigs include respiratory tract infections , diarrhea , scurvy vitamin C deficiency, typically characterized by sluggishness , abscesses due to infection often in the neck, due to hay embedded in the throat, or from external scratches , and infections by lice , mites , or fungus.

    Mange mites Trixacarus caviae are a common cause of hair loss, and other symptoms may also include excessive scratching, unusually aggressive behavior when touched due to pain , and, in some instances, seizures.

    Other causes of hair loss can be due to hormonal upsets caused by underlying medical conditions such as ovarian cysts.

    Foreign bodies, especially small pieces of hay or straw, can become lodged in the eyes of guinea pigs, resulting in excessive blinking, tearing, and in some cases an opaque film over the eye due to corneal ulcer.

    While it is normal for guinea pigs to sneeze periodically, frequent sneezing may be a symptom of pneumonia , especially in response to atmospheric changes.

    Pneumonia may also be accompanied by torticollis and can be fatal. Because the guinea pig has a stout, compact body, it more easily tolerates excessive cold than excessive heat.

    Guinea pigs are prey animals whose survival instinct is to mask pain and signs of illness, and many times health problems may not be apparent until a condition is severe or in its advanced stages.

    Treatment of disease is made more difficult by the extreme sensitivity guinea pigs have to most antibiotics , including penicillin , which kill off the intestinal flora and quickly bring on episodes of diarrhea and in some cases, death.

    Similar to the inherited genetic diseases of other breeds of animal such as hip dysplasia in canines , a number of genetic abnormalities of guinea pigs have been reported.

    Most commonly, the roan coloration of Abyssinian guinea pigs is associated with congenital eye disorders and problems with the digestive system.

    If handled correctly early in life, guinea pigs become amenable to being picked up and carried, and seldom bite or scratch. In Switzerland, owning a single guinea pig is considered harmful to its well-being and forbidden by law.

    Domesticated guinea pigs occur in many breeds, which have been developed since their introduction to Europe and North America.

    These varieties vary in hair and color composition. The most common varieties found in pet stores are the English shorthair also known as the American , which have a short, smooth coat, and the Abyssinian , whose coat is ruffled with cowlicks , or rosettes.

    Also popular among breeders are the Peruvian and the Sheltie or Silkie , both straight longhair breeds, and the Texel , a curly longhair.

    Grooming of guinea pigs is primarily accomplished using combs or brushes. Shorthair breeds are typically brushed weekly, while longhair breeds may require daily grooming.

    Cavy clubs and associations dedicated to the showing and breeding of guinea pigs have been established worldwide.

    Allergic symptoms, including rhinitis , conjunctivitis , and asthma , have been documented in laboratory animal workers who come into contact with guinea pigs.

    As a result of their widespread popularity, especially in households with children, guinea pigs have shown a presence in culture and media.

    Some noted appearances of the animal in literature include the short story " Pigs Is Pigs " by Ellis Parker Butler , which is a tale of bureaucratic incompetence.

    Two guinea pigs held at a railway station breed unchecked while humans argue as to whether they are "pigs" or "pets" for the purpose of determining freight charges.

    Guinea pigs have also been featured in film and television. A guinea pig named Rodney, voiced by Chris Rock , was a prominent character in the film Dr.

    Dolittle , and Linny the Guinea pig is a co-star on Nick Jr. Guinea pigs were used in some major advertising campaigns in the s and s, notably for Egg Banking plc , [] Snapple , and Blockbuster Video.

    The Startling ", giant guinea pigs dressed in costumes rampage over the Earth. A video game based on the movie was also released.

    A guinea pig named Bugsy appears in the film Bedtime Stories. A guinea pig named Cashew features prominently in the second season of the U.

    Traditionally, the animal was reserved for ceremonial meals by indigenous people in the Andean highlands, but since the s, it has become more socially acceptable for consumption by all people.

    Because guinea pigs require much less room than traditional livestock and reproduce extremely quickly, they are a more profitable source of food and income than many traditional stock animals, such as pigs and cattle; [] moreover, they can be raised in an urban environment.

    Switch to new thesaurus. French Guinea , Republic of Guinea. Africa - the second largest continent; located to the south of Europe and bordered to the west by the South Atlantic and to the east by the Indian Ocean.

    Guinea ghinea [21 scellini]. References in classic literature? To make the lesson more complete, he took a guinea , and lowering it into the hole, said, "Put in SO.

    Marner wanted the heaps of ten to grow into a square, and then into a larger square; and every added guinea , while it was itself a satisfaction, bred a new desire.

    He then gave him a guinea , bid him return to his bed, and wished him a good march; adding, he hoped to overtake them before the division reached Worcester.

    I lost no time, I promise you; and when I came back into the round-house, I found the gentleman had taken a money-belt from about his waist, and poured out a guinea or two upon the table.

    She enclosed the half guinea I was afraid she must have had a world of trouble to get it out of Mr. One guinea , for advising me to keep her quiet; another guinea for telling me to trust to time.

    The money with which he bought the bulbs was borrowed, and now he left Leyden to make the tour of Europe burdened already with debt, with one guinea in his pocket, and one clean shirt and a flute as his luggage.

    I ask you to accept the post of private physician to this household for the space of one--it may be two months, and I offer you also, as an honorarium, the fee of one thousand guineas.

    Having won twenty guineas at whist, and taken leave of his friends, Phileas Fogg, at twenty-five minutes past seven, left the Reform Club.

    Albert Hahl , 10 July — 13 April , acting to 10 November , second time. Eduard Haber , 13 April — 17 October , acting. Houses on Mioko, Papua New Guinea, ca.

    Governor of German New Guinea: After Hahl attempted to apply his system to the whole of New Guinea, and although his success was limited, exports rose from one million marks in to eight million in He was forced to retire because of disagreements with Berlin officials, and became an active writer on New Guinea and was a leader in German colonial societies between the wars he joined in in the higher judicial and administrative service of his country and was founded in by information in the colonial department entrusted with the exercise of the commissioner judgeship in the Bismarck Archipelago.

    After three years of work , in which he had ample opportunity by circumspection and energy to have unruly natives in their place and to keep in order , he was chosen in for the post of vice- governor of the Mariana and Caroline Islands group in Ponape.

    With prudence and boldness he understood here in an excellent manner to exert his personal influence on the islanders and to plant them confidence to the German government.

    Former Post Office building in Simpson Harbour. Rabaul wharf the North German Lloyd Company building. One proposed explanation is that the animals were brought to Europe by way of Guinea , leading people to think they had originated there.

    The guinea pig was first domesticated as early as BC for food by tribes in the Andean region of South America the present-day southern part of Colombia , Ecuador , Peru , and Bolivia , [16] some thousands of years after the domestication of the South American camelids.

    Spanish , Dutch , and English traders brought guinea pigs to Europe , where they quickly became popular as exotic pets among the upper classes and royalty, including Queen Elizabeth I.

    The guinea pig was first described in the West in by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner. Some breeds are longfur breeds such as the Peruvian , the Silkie , and the Texel.

    In the s, a minority scientific opinion emerged proposing that caviomorphs , such as guinea pigs, chinchillas , and degus , are not rodents and should be reclassified as a separate order of mammals similar to lagomorphs.

    Guinea pigs can learn complex paths to food, and can accurately remember a learned path for months. Their strongest problem-solving strategy is motion.

    They startle extremely easily, and either freeze in place for long periods or run for cover with rapid, darting motions when they sense danger.

    Like many rodents, guinea pigs sometimes participate in social grooming , and they regularly self-groom. They have well-developed senses of hearing, smell , and touch.

    Vocalization is the primary means of communication between members of the species. Some species of cavy identified in the 20th century, such as C.

    They are social, living in the wild in small groups that consist of several females sows , a male boar , and the young which, in a break with the preceding porcine nomenclature, are called "pups" not "piglets".

    They move together in groups herds eating grass or other vegetation, and do not store food. Domesticated guinea pigs thrive in groups of two or more; groups of sows, or groups of one or more sows and a neutered boar are common combinations, but boars can sometimes live together.

    Guinea pigs learn to recognize and bond with other individual pigs, and testing of boars shows their neuroendocrine stress response is significantly lowered in the presence of a bonded female when compared to the presence of unfamiliar females.

    Domestic guinea pigs generally live in cages, although some owners of large numbers of guinea pigs dedicate entire rooms to their pets.

    Cages with solid or wire mesh floors are used, although wire mesh floors can cause injury and may be associated with an infection commonly known as bumblefoot ulcerative pododermatitis.

    Bedding made from red cedar Eastern or Western and pine , both softwoods , were commonly used in the past, but these materials are now believed to contain harmful phenols aromatic hydrocarbons and oils.

    Guinea pigs do not generally thrive when housed with other species. Housing guinea pigs with other rodents such as gerbils and hamsters may increase instances of respiratory and other infections, [64] and such rodents may act aggressively toward the guinea pig.

    Some published sources say that guinea pigs and rabbits complement each other well when sharing a cage. In geriatric boars or sows rarely in young ones , the muscles which allow the softer pellets to be expelled from the anus can become weak.

    This creates a condition known as "anal impaction", which prevents the animal from redigesting cecotropes even though harder pellets may pass through the impacted mass.

    Guinea pigs benefit from a diet of fresh grass hay , such as timothy hay , in addition to food pellets which are often based on timothy hay.

    Alfalfa hay is also a popular food choice and most guinea pigs will eat large amounts of alfalfa when offered it, [21] [75] though some controversy exists over offering alfalfa to adult guinea pigs.

    Some pet owners and veterinary organizations have advised that, as a legume rather than a grass hay, alfalfa consumed in large amounts may lead to obesity , as well as bladder stones from the excess calcium in all animals except for pregnant and very young guinea pigs.

    Like humans, but unlike most other mammals , guinea pigs cannot synthesize their own vitamin C and must obtain this vital nutrient from food.

    If guinea pigs do not ingest enough vitamin C, they can suffer from potentially fatal scurvy. Poor diets for guinea pigs have been associated with muscular dystrophy , metastatic calcification , difficulties with pregnancy, vitamin deficiencies , and teeth problems.

    A number of plants are poisonous to guinea pigs, including bracken , bryony , buttercup , charlock , deadly nightshade , foxglove , hellebore , hemlock , lily of the valley , mayweed , monkshood , privet , ragwort , rhubarb , speedwell , toadflax both Linaria vulgaris and Linaria dalmatica , and wild celery.

    A guinea pig may or may not eat poisonous material. Males reach sexual maturity in 3—5 weeks, while females can be fertile as early as 4 weeks old, and can carry litters before they are adults.

    A sow can have as many as five litters in a year, but six is theoretically possible. Females can once again become pregnant 6—48 hours after giving birth, but it is not healthy for a female to be constantly pregnant.

    The gestation period lasts from 59 days 1. Litter size ranges from one to six, with three being the average; [90] the largest recorded litter size is Cohabitating females assist in mothering duties if lactating; [95] guinea pigs practice alloparental care , in which a female may adopt the pup s of another.

    This might take place if the original parents die or are for some reason separated from them. This behavior is common and is seen in many other animal species such as the elephant.

    Toxemia of pregnancy hypertension is a common problem and kills many pregnant females. Signs of toxemia include: Females that do not give birth may develop an irreversible fusing of the pubic symphysis , a joint in the pelvis , due to calcification which may occur between 6 and 10 months of age.

    The reason for potential calcification is a metabolic disease, like ochronosis. Female genitals are distinguished by a Y-shaped configuration formed from a vulvar flap.

    While male genitals may look similar, with the penis and anus forming a similar shape, the penis will protrude if pressure is applied to the surrounding hair.

    Common ailments in domestic guinea pigs include respiratory tract infections , diarrhea , scurvy vitamin C deficiency, typically characterized by sluggishness , abscesses due to infection often in the neck, due to hay embedded in the throat, or from external scratches , and infections by lice , mites , or fungus.

    Mange mites Trixacarus caviae are a common cause of hair loss, and other symptoms may also include excessive scratching, unusually aggressive behavior when touched due to pain , and, in some instances, seizures.

    Other causes of hair loss can be due to hormonal upsets caused by underlying medical conditions such as ovarian cysts. Foreign bodies, especially small pieces of hay or straw, can become lodged in the eyes of guinea pigs, resulting in excessive blinking, tearing, and in some cases an opaque film over the eye due to corneal ulcer.

    While it is normal for guinea pigs to sneeze periodically, frequent sneezing may be a symptom of pneumonia , especially in response to atmospheric changes.

    Pneumonia may also be accompanied by torticollis and can be fatal. Because the guinea pig has a stout, compact body, it more easily tolerates excessive cold than excessive heat.

    Guinea pigs are prey animals whose survival instinct is to mask pain and signs of illness, and many times health problems may not be apparent until a condition is severe or in its advanced stages.

    Treatment of disease is made more difficult by the extreme sensitivity guinea pigs have to most antibiotics , including penicillin , which kill off the intestinal flora and quickly bring on episodes of diarrhea and in some cases, death.

    Similar to the inherited genetic diseases of other breeds of animal such as hip dysplasia in canines , a number of genetic abnormalities of guinea pigs have been reported.

    Most commonly, the roan coloration of Abyssinian guinea pigs is associated with congenital eye disorders and problems with the digestive system.

    If handled correctly early in life, guinea pigs become amenable to being picked up and carried, and seldom bite or scratch. In Switzerland, owning a single guinea pig is considered harmful to its well-being and forbidden by law.

    Domesticated guinea pigs occur in many breeds, which have been developed since their introduction to Europe and North America.

    These varieties vary in hair and color composition. The most common varieties found in pet stores are the English shorthair also known as the American , which have a short, smooth coat, and the Abyssinian , whose coat is ruffled with cowlicks , or rosettes.

    Also popular among breeders are the Peruvian and the Sheltie or Silkie , both straight longhair breeds, and the Texel , a curly longhair.

    In the late s and early s, an active minority, stemming mainly from a right-wing National Liberal and Free Conservative background, had organised various colonial societies all over Germany to persuade Chancellor Bismarck to embark on a colonial policy.

    After Bismarck had patiently listened to Wolf enthusiastically laying out his plans that he sought to pitch employing several illustrative maps, Bismarck finally interrupted his monologue:.

    Your map of Africa there is very nice I have to admit. But you know, my map of Africa is here You see here is Russia, over there is [..

    And us, we are here — right in the middle between those two. Despite his personal objections, it was Bismarck himself who eventually organised the acquisition of much of what would become the German colonial empire.

    The very first attempts at the new policy came in when Bismarck had to put German trading interests in southwestern Africa under imperial protection.

    The edition of 27 November of the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung carried an article which the Colonial Secretary of the British colony of New South Wales drew to the attention of the editor of the Sydney Morning Herald and, on 7 February , the paper published a summary of the article under the heading German annexation of New Guinea.

    The argument lifted from the German paper began by stating that New Guinea fell into the Australian sphere but had been neglected; although the Portuguese had explored in the 16th century, it was the Dutch from the 17th century "who seemed better satisfied with the country than other European nations had been" but they had over-reached themselves and had fallen back towards Java, Sumatra and Celebes.

    Recent explorations had given the basis for reconsideration: The publication of the Sydney Morning Herald article caused a sensation and not just in the colony of New South Wales: On his return to Germany from his — Pacific expedition, Otto Finsch joined a small, informal group interested in German colonial expansion into the South Seas led by the banker, Adolph von Hansemann.

    Finsch encouraged them to pursue the founding of a colony on the north-east coast of New Guinea and the New Britain Archipelago even providing them with an estimate of the costs of such a venture.

    He was an imperial judge at Herbertshoehe —98 , deputy governor of New Guinea — , and governor —14 As a judge he made three reforms: After Hahl attempted to apply his system to the whole of New Guinea, and although his success was limited, exports rose from one million marks in to eight million in He was forced to retire because of disagreements with Berlin officials, and became an active writer on New Guinea and was a leader in German colonial societies between the wars.

    By the mids German church authorities had devised a definite program for missionary work in New Guinea and assigned it to the Rhenish Mission , under the direction of Friedrich Fabri —91 , a Lutheran.

    The missionaries faced extraordinary difficulties, including repeated sickness from the unhealthy climate, psychological and sometimes violent tensions and fights between the colonial administration and the natives.

    The natives rejected European customs and norms of social behaviour, with few embracing Christianity. Missionaries sponsored by the Catholic Church in Germany had better resources and influence, and proved more successful.

    They put more emphasis on tradition and less on modernisation, and were more in line with native world-views and traditions.

    European morality and discipline were often adopted, as were notions of dignity and prestige. German Mission societies in New Guinea [25]. These islands became a protectorate and were administered from German New Guinea.

    To expand the highly profitable plantations, the Germans needed more native workers. The government sent military expeditions to take direct control of more areas from to Instead of voluntary recruitment it became a matter of forced mobilisation.

    The government enforced new laws that required the tribes to furnish four weeks of labour per person annually and payment of a poll tax in cash, thereby forcing reluctant natives into the work force.

    The government did explore the choice of voluntary recruitment of labourers from China, Japan, and Micronesia, but only a few hundred came. After the government tried to ameliorate the impact by ending the recruitment of women in some areas and entirely closing other areas to recruiting.

    The planters protested vehemently, deciding to go to war with the whites , and the government responded by sending 4 warships with troops to defeat the Sokeh workers and impose the forced labour policy.

    They arrived in January and by February the Sokeh leader had surrendered. The Australians suffered six dead and four wounded — the first Australian military casualties of the First World War.

    The German forces fared much worse, with one German officer and 30 native police killed and one German officer and ten native police wounded.

    On 21 September all German forces in the colony surrendered.

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