2. Okt. Jahrestag des Katalonien-Referendums. Gewalt bei Protesten in Barcelona. Ein Jahr nach dem verbotenen Unabhängigkeitsreferendum in. 1. Okt. Hunderte Aktivisten besetzten am Montag in Girona nördlich von Barcelona die Gleise eines Hochgeschwindigkeitszuges, wie die. 2. Okt. Menschen demonstrieren für Unabhängigkeit in Barcelona . Das von Madrid untersagte Referendum wurde trotz eines massiven.
The ballot was initially scheduled for no later than 17 September , a result of an election pledge made by pro-independence parties ahead of the Catalan election during the previous legislature, the Catalan government had held a non-binding "citizen participation process" about the question.
Shortly after the government was formed, it resolved to hold a referendum on independence. On 24 January , the Government of Catalonia held a privately organised conference  in one of the rooms of the European Parliament in its Brussels headquarters.
It was attended by people, among whom were MEPs, diplomats and journalists from the international media. Shortly after the referendum was announced, attention focused on the issue of the ballot boxes , since the Government of Spain is in charge of providing them, whereas for this non-State-sanctioned vote, the Government of Catalonia would have to put them in place, potentially risking prosecution for the misuse of public funds.
It is still unclear who bought them. The Catalan government opened a bidding process to buy them but no offers were presented. Tendering by the Catalan government for materials such as ballot papers and envelopes for a putative regional election in the region were thought by some to be an attempt to covertly organise the referendum.
In terms of its organisation, the electoral roll is one of the main points in contention, since this is managed by the National Institute of Statistics, an autonomous organisation placed under the jurisdiction of the government of Spain.
To access its data, polls must have been authorised by the Spanish Congress. Similar difficulties could be met when it comes to the electoral commission to be formed for monitoring the polling and results.
An official announcement by the Government of Catalonia suggested that Catalan residents overseas willing to vote would have to register.
By the end of June , out of , Catalans living abroad and eligible to vote, 5, had registered. Then, on 14 July, Puigdemont proceeded with a cabinet reshuffle , replacing three additional ministers in his cabinet the ones responsible for Presidency, Education and Interior in a move widely seen as a removal of the remaining hesitant voices within his cabinet in regards to the referendum issue.
The Catalan police force is seen as key to enforcing any court orders sought by the central government challenging the secession vote.
When the Spanish Constitutional Court suspended the law on the referendum on 7 September , it forbade several Catalan office holders, the Catalan media, as well as the municipalities of Catalonia to participate in the preparation of the referendum.
Out of municipalities that answered, announced that they would support the referendum anyway, 41 announced they would refuse to support it, and three, including the municipality of Barcelona, answered without making their intentions clear.
Among those that refused to support the referendum, however, there are large population centers,  such as the provincial capitals of Lleida , inhabitants and Tarragona , inhabitants or the cities of Terrassa , inhabitants and Hospitalet de Llobregat , inhabitants governed by PSC mayors.
The mayor of Barcelona , Ada Colau , while refusing to make a statement whether the municipality of Barcelona would provide logistical support to the referendum or not, strongly criticised the "language of testosterone" and the pressure that she said was being exerted on the municipalities.
Nevertheless, she announced that she would do anything possible to allow those in Barcelona who wished to vote to do so. On 20 September , following orders of the trial court number 13, the Spanish Civil Guard started Operation Anubis.
During the first day, the police officers raided different headquarters of the Government of Catalonia and arrested 14 senior officials involved in the preparation of the referendum.
The first request for help was at 9: They are being investigated for alleged crimes of sedition for their role in organising these massive protests aimed at hindering the Civil Guard investigation.
We ask that you dissolve this demonstration, as best as you can, very calmly, today, in a few minutes". According to the source this happened around In the following days, the Spanish Civil Guard and the Spanish National Police were reinforced with police officers from the rest of Spain, which are expected to reach 16, police and military police officers distributed in different Catalan cities on 1 October and would continue to carry out searches in companies that allegedly had referendum ballots or ballot boxes.
A conference named Referendum yes or yes that was going to be held in Vitoria-Gasteiz on 15 September was forbidden by the courts after a request from the Spanish government.
The speakers, including the pro-independence deputy Anna Gabriel , disobeyed the ruling and tried to hold the conference anyway, but the room where it was taking place was evicted by the police five minutes after starting.
In the days previous to the referendum, the Spanish civil guard shut down more than websites following a court order issued by the High Court of Justice of Catalonia , including the official one from the Catalan government and the main site of the Catalan civil organization ANC.
The Catalan Government announced it planned to hold the referendum on 1 October According to the Catalan government, the following people were entitled to vote in the referendum: The question of the referendum was asked "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a republic?
The referendum was attended by several international observers. Of these international observers, those summoned by Diplocat are not recognised by the UN as such in not recognising this Diplocat as an international observer.
Due to some alleged irregularities and to the actions taken by the national police and civil guard, the international observers, invited by the Generalitat, declared that the referendum results could not be considered valid as the process failed to meet the minimum international standards for elections.
They also criticized the police violence. On 23 September, the UN Independent Expert on the Promotion of a Democratic and Equitable International Order, Alfred de Zayas , issued a media statement  where he advocates for the right of self-determination of Catalan people, reminding "[t]he Spanish Constitution itself stipulates in its articles 10 and 96 the supremacy of international law and in particular international human rights law over of domestic law" and that "self-determination is not limited to the decolonisation context".
Pollsters generally started using the proposed referendum question "Do you want Catalonia to be an independent state in the form of a republic?
In its March poll, aside from asking respondents whether they would want Catalonia to become an independent state, it asked their intents in the event of a referendum on the independence of Catalonia being called and organised by the Government of Catalonia without agreement from the Spanish Government.
In a July poll a similar question was proposed, with the difference that it asked about the actual 1 October referendum. The Catalan government estimated that polling stations representing up to , potential voters— Earlier in the day, a universal census was introduced, so any Catalan elector going out to vote could do so at any one of the still functioning polling stations.
Due in part to the deactivation and repeated blocking by the police of the computer programs used to implement universal census and result reporting,  some alleged irregularities were reported by Spanish media during the celebration of the referendum.
Among them, people recorded voting more than once, votes made by non-Catalan people not included in the census or an image of a child casting a vote in the ballot box.
The Catalan government was not allowed to use the same ballot boxes used in other elections and referendums because they are owned by the Spanish government, so different ballot boxes were used,  those were described as translucent by some media and opaque by some others in contrast to the transparent ballot boxes used in elections.
There was no electoral board as it dissolved itself on 22 September to avoid being fined by the Constitutional Court and the counting system was blocked by the Guardia civil following orders from the Catalan High Court Justice.
The Spanish Government denounced that the rules of the referendum got changed 45 minutes before the opening. They also accepted the use of non-official ballots printed at home and made optional the requirement of using envelopes.
In 71 municipalities the number of "yes" votes tallied were more than the number of registered voters for those municipalities, which could be partly explained by the "universal census" system introduced earlier in the day allowing people to vote in a different poll station than the one they were assigned.
The Civil Guard delivered a report to the Spanish High Court with recordings of conversations that allegedly demonstrate that "the results of the referendum were decided in the days leading up to its holding".
In the elections of December called by Spanish Prime Minister, parties supporting independence got On 3 October , Carles Puigdemont said that his government intends to act on the result of the referendum "at the end of this week or the beginning of next" and declare independence from Spain.
Puigdemont would go before the Catalan Parliament to address them on Monday 9 October , pending the agreement of other political parties. On 4 October , Mireia Boya , a lawmaker of the Popular Unity Candidacy CUP , announced that a declaration of independence would likely come after the parliamentary session on 9 October.
The King of Spain, Felipe VI , called the Catalan referendum "illegal" and appealed to the union [of Spain], calling the situation "extremely serious.
According to Swiss national radio, the Foreign Ministry of Switzerland has offered to mediate between the two sides in the crisis.
It also made clear that Switzerland fully respects Spanish Sovereignty and that in any case any facilitation of the process could only take place in case that both sides requested it.
The Spanish police and Guardia Civil mounted operations to close the polling stations. The security forces met resistance from citizens who obstructed their access to the voting tables; in Sant Julia de Ramis, where Puigdemont was expected to vote,  they were joined by Corps of Firefighters of Catalonia members who formed a "human shield" separating the police from civilians to help obstruct their access to the polling station.
The Spanish government endorsed the police actions ordered by the regional high court. Various images and reports used to magnify the claims of police violence were circulated but were later found to be inaccurate or photoshopped ,      and reports argued later that such posts, as well as conspiracy theories, had been amplified through the same network of social network profiles that had earlier promoted alt-right and pro-Putin views during earlier elections in Western countries.
According to the judge, there were persons injured on that day in the city of Barcelona alone, 20 of whom were agents.
Of those injured, most were minor, but four people were hospitalised by the emergency health service and of those, two were in serious condition, one due to impact from a rubber ball in the eye in the protests, the other for unrelated causes.
There was a police charge near school Ramon Llull. When police officers tried to enter inside the polling station, voters responded with a sit-in protest to block their way in.
Few minutes later more anti-riot police was deployed in the zone and they could find the way in after breaking the polling station door.
Police officers confiscated the ballot boxes, some of them with votes inside. In their way out, voters blocked the passage of the police cars standing or sitting in front of the police vehicles.
According to the final report by the Catalan Health Service CatSalut of the Generalitat, there were 1, people attended by the Catalan hospitals in connection with the Catalan Referendum: On 20 October , the last injured person left the hospital.
Regarding the age distribution: This figures include 12 police officers: The Spanish Property Insight web portal quoted a real estate agent as saying, "The number of foreign buyers in Barcelona fell from a record level in September to zero in the first two weeks of October".
Stratfor suggested financial market disruption is due to the political upheaval. On 10 October in a speech in front of the Catalan parliament Puigdemont stated that he considered the referendum results to be valid and in consequence used the following wording: In response the Central government made a formal request for him to answer before the Monday 16 October if he declared independence asking specifically for yes or no answer clarifying that any answer different than a "no" would be interpreted as a "yes".
Since he refused to abandon his independence push, on 21 October the Spanish government initiated the implementation of article of the Spanish constitution.
On 27 October , the Parliament of Catalonia unilaterally declared independence from Spain. The measure is intended to be temporary; its claimed objective being to "re-establish the rule of law" and restore autonomy after new elections.
On 16 January , the Spanish Constitutional Court issued a temporary restraining order regarding the work of the Catalan Government commission that investigates the violation of fundamental rights in Catalonia.
Different sources describe aspects of the events differently according to their political stance. Various media reported on fake images of police violence against civilians that were posted in social networks.
Later investigations by Medium-DFRL said it found support for some but not all of the arguments made by Spanish outlets. Those two being the first and the third top-sellers in the category of non-fiction in Catalan language during the Diada de Sant Jordi of On 15 June, the exhibition 55 Ballot Boxes for Freedom opened in Brussels, with artwork inspired by the ballot boxes of the Catalan referendum.
Netflix used images from the police action during the day of the referendum to promote Black Mirror series in Spain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Catalan independence referendum, The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Catalan self-determination referendum, ; Catalan regional election, ; and Declaration of the Initiation of the Process of Independence of Catalonia.
Reactions to the Catalan independence referendum, This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Catalan declaration of independence and Spanish constitutional crisis. Archived from the original PDF on 9 September Retrieved 21 July La Vanguardia in Spanish.
El Confidencial in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on 7 August Retrieved 27 March El Mundo in Spanish.
Archived from the original PDF on 4 July Archived from the original PDF on 2 April Archived from the original PDF on 19 December Archived from the original PDF on 31 October Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original PDF on 8 December Archived from the original PDF on 16 July Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 3 October Top court officially rules Catalan referendum illegal".
Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 16 October Court blocks independence referendum". Retrieved 18 October Retrieved 5 October A non-binding Catalan self-determination referendum , also known as the Citizen Participation Process on the Political Future of Catalonia ,  was held on Sunday, 9 November , to gauge support on the political future of Catalonia.
While also referred to as "Catalan independence referendum",     the vote was rebranded as a "participation process" by the Government of Catalonia , after a "non-referendum popular consultation" on the same topic and for the same date had been suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain.
The ballot papers carried two questions: Estimates for the turnout as published by the news media ranged from Holding a referendum about the "political future of Catalonia" in was one of the items of the governance agreement ratified by Artur Mas from Convergence and Union CiU and Oriol Junqueras from Republican Left of Catalonia ERC on 18 December ,     that allowed Artur Mas to be voted in as President of the Generalitat of Catalonia for a second term.
On 19 September , the Catalan parliament approved a call for a referendum on independence. On 14 October, Artur Mas proposed a "process of citizen participation" as an alternative to the original referendum.
The Catalan Government, however, pushed forward with the "citizen participation" process, in defiance of the Constitutional Court,  and voting took place as planned on 9 November In and different demonstrations took place in Barcelona.
The first one took place on 10 July It featured a Catalan regionalist ideological leadership. The second one on 11 September was openly in favor of Catalan independence and had as a slogan "Catalonia, next state in Europe".
As a consequence of this second demonstration, the Rt. Also, during , dozens of Catalan towns declared themselves Free Catalan Territory stating that "the Spanish legislation and regulations have effect only in Spain, so this town will wait for new legislation and regulation from the Catalan Government and the Parliament of Catalonia.
The Catalan independence referendum is planned to take place during the tenth legislature of the Parliament of Catalonia. According to a resolution adopted by the Parliament of Catalonia on 27 September The Parliament of Catalonia confirms the need for the people of Catalonia to be able to freely and democratically determine their collective future and urges the government to hold a referendum during the following legislature.
The resolution was adopted after the general policy debate. It received 84 favourable votes, 21 against and 25 abstentions.
On 23 January the Parliament of Catalonia adopted by 85 favourable votes, 41 against, and 2 abstentions the " Declaration of Sovereignty and of the Right to Decide of the Catalan People ".
It is based on the following principles: In accordance with the democratically expressed will of the majority of the Catalan public, the Parliament of Catalonia initiates a process to bring to promote the right of the citizens of Catalonia to collectively decide their political future.
On 8 May this purely political declaration was provisionally suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain. On 12 December , the Government of Catalonia announced that a deal between Catalan nationalist parties had set the date and wording for the referendum on independence.
The date would be 9 November and that it will contain a question with two sections: The date was chosen as it would allow for discussions with the Spanish Government in order "to stage the consultation legally", but the Spanish Government stated shortly thereafter its intention to block the referendum, stating: According to the consultation decree, "in the consultation there is a first question followed successively by a second question, and they are worded as follows: The participation process does not have an official electorate.
Catalan people who are resident in other Spanish regions, and Spanish citizens who live in Catalonia but are not resident there, cannot vote.
Estimates of the number of people eligible to vote range between 5. On 25 March , the Spanish Constitutional Court finally ruled that the sovereignty part of the " Declaration of Sovereignty and of the Right to Decide of the Catalan People " was "unconstitutional and null", and therefore did not allow a self-determination referendum to be held in Catalonia.
On 19 September the Parliament of Catalonia approved by favourable votes, 28 against, the Consultation law. According to pro-consultation parties, this law will provide the legal basis for the President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, Artur Mas, to hold the consultation non-binding self-determination referendum on independence from Spain on 9 November.
On 27 September , Catalan President Artur Mas signed a decree calling for a consultation on independence. On 14 October, the Catalan President proposes a "process of citizen participation" as an alternative for the original referendum  The Spanish government announced that it would block the effort by appealing to the Spanish Constitutional Court, which decided to hear the Spanish government case on 4 November , which provisionally suspended the vote.
The Catalan Government announced they would push forward with the vote, in defiance of the Constitutional Court of Spain.
Position of the parties with parliamentary representation in the Parliament of Spain sorted by seats:. The Basque Government supports the Catalan agreement to hold the referendum and calls on the Spanish government to recognise the referendum and allow it to be celebrated.
Since December , several surveys have been carried out on the two stated questions of the referendum. Voters who vote in the first question no, are against Catalonia becoming a state.
The Catalan government indicated that 2,, votes were cast overall,  out of 5. Turnout estimates published by media outlets range between Turnout varied greatly across the 41 administrative districts of Catalonia.
The proportion of Yes-Yes votes over the total electorate ranged between Below is a table outlining the results of the referendum by district.
The table does not consider turnout. Catalan president Artur Mas said the vote was "a lesson in democracy. They are accused of serious civil disobedience and perverting the course of justice for having authorized the unofficial vote on November 9, in defiance of its prohibition by the Constitutional Court of Spain.
Prosecutors were calling for Artur Mas to be disqualified from office for 10 years, while Ortega and Rigau for 9. The trial focused on the events since the suspension decided by the Constitutional Court on November 4, , until the beginning of the popular vote, on November 9.
In the event, in March Mas was barred from public office for two years by a court in Barcelona for organizing an illegal vote in defiance of the Spanish courts.
He was also fined 36, euros; Joana Ortega and Irene Rigau, were also convicted, barred 21 months and 18 months, respectively, as well as receiving lesser fines.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Catalan self-determination referendum, Catalan self-determination referendum, a Do you want Catalonia to become a state?
Referendum results by district where saturation of colour represents the strength of vote. Turnout is not taken into account. President list Joaquim Torra.
Ministry of Home Affairs Police of Catalonia.